Friday, 27 February 2015

How To Revive A Mermaid.


The Compelling Story of The Mermaid Pool Restoration and How You Can Be Part of The Action!

 

WHAT’S IT ALL ABOUT?


Imagine a guy walking his dog through the back streets of Manly Vale. Every day he saw shopping trolleys dumped in the local creek and thought to himself angrily “someone should do something about that....”  He finally realised that he was the someone in question! I’m not sure if they’ve forgiven him yet, but he eventually convinced other local residents to join him! *

Andrew and Wol removing discarded graffiti spray cans from Manly Creek.

 BUT WAIT THERE’S MORE...


 Ah it seemed so easy then, just yank a few trolleys out of the water and we can all go back to football and beer. Trouble is, the closer you looked, the more garbage there was. The beautiful oasis that once was Mermaid Pool had literally become a rubbish dump over recent years and what should have been spectacular remnant bushland was now also clogged with invasive weeds such as morning glory and privet. What were we getting ourselves into?
Ken removes dumped rubbish from the bush

TO CUT A LONG STORY ...


 Many things have since happened to help restore the tarnished jewel of Mermaid Pool, kicking off on ‘Clean Up Australia Day’ 2002, when 4 tonnes of rubbish were removed by 71 volunteers. Subsequently the Clean Up Australia organisation adopted the project as a ‘Fix Up’ Site. Two grants have been applied for and received from the Natural Heritage Trust, which has helped pay for rehabilitation contractors, whilst volunteers have stencilled storm water drains, produced brochures, planted trees and much more.

Weekend Detainees from Parramatta Gaol also spent a number of years physically removing pest species along the waterway. Sydney Morning Herald article by John Huxley

Clean Up Australia founder, Ian Kiernan, visits Mermaid Pool

WORKOUT AT THE 'GREEN GYM !!


The best way to get involved now is to come to the monthly bush regeneration volunteer workdays.  “Bush regeneration” basically means identifying and removing a range of noxious weeds that are impacting the natural environment by out-competing the native plants.  We are part of Warringah Council’s "Friends of the Bush" program It’s a great opportunity to learn about the local environment  and help protect it whilst keeping fit and meeting (slightly crazy) new people.  Professional supervision is provided. We even have some amazing ‘masochist’ volunteers who wear waders to remove the introduced aquatic weeds (such as Ludwigia Peruviana from Peru!)  that are clogging up  the waterway. We are conscious of advocating hand removal of weeds and keep any herbicide use away from the water and to an absolute minimum.


Sue removes weeds with Landcare Ambassador-Beau Walker

Mermaid Pool Volunteers meet on the 4th Saturday of every month. Turn up anytime from 9am to 1pm.Where: Outside Manly Hyraulics Lab Gates, western corner of King St, Manly Vale. For more information email: Malcolm Fisher cowfish5@bigpond.com

(NB Volunteers are required to complete a short OH and S training session with Warringah Council before working on site).

Keith, Dave and Kris "getting fit" by removing non-native and invasive water weeds

WHERE THE HELL IS MERMAID POOL?


Mermaid Pool is at the western corner of King St, Manly Vale, Sydney. It boasts a lovely waterfall and is fed from Manly Dam by Manly Creek. The creek then winds its way down to the surfing beach at Queenscliff via Manly Lagoon. (As you can see it’s got a lot of Manly connections).

An aerial view of the pool surrounded by a small remnant of bushland

(The UNSW water lab is to the left)

OTHER WAYS TO GET INVOLVED.


If physical labour is not your thing we also need people with I.T, communications, research and admin skills plus individuals who are able to conduct ecological surveys).


Tiny native fish (the original "Mermaids") migrate up Manly
Creek

TIME TO THINK ABOUT GOING NATIVE?


 The Sydney region has a much greater number of plant species than the whole of Great Britain combined and each of our suburbs have their own individual endemic varieties.  Sadly as the city has grown we’ve eradicated much of our bushland and planted our gardens with exotics from Europe, Asia or South America. Most natives available in the major nurseries are hybrids or out of area plants. Increasingly though, people are seeking out species indigenous to their area and finding them perfect for local weather conditions, soil types and for attracting wildlife. The New Northern Beaches Council can offer advice on what to plant and where to buy them. There is even a community native plant nursery now at Manly Dam (near the Rangers Office).

Dillwynia Retorta

DOES EVIL LURK IN YOUR GARDEN?


Our waterways and natural bushland are under threat due to the invasion of environmental weeds. These introduced plants out-compete or smother native plants. The trouble is, many of these foreign pests begin life in someone’s backyard and are spread by birds eating their seeds or from people dumping garden clippings in the bush. Once these weeds take over, the natural character of the bush is lost and habitat for wildlife is reduced.
Identify weeds here. 

The invasive and pervasive Lantana


IT’S A WILD LIFE AT MERMAID POOL


 The great thing about getting involved in environmental restoration is that you can discover fascinating insights into local biodiversity and help ensure that habitat for our native fauna is improved.  In the Mermaid Pool environs for example, Bandicoots have returned after a 40 year absence, Swamp Wallabies have recently been spotted nearby whilst  Dwarf Green Tree Frogs still survive in the reed beds. There are 10 types of native fish that call this waterway home. Some of them have migrated up Manly Creek from the ocean to spawn for millennia (the original “Mermaids”) but accumulated silt, exotic weeds and other obstructions have made this increasingly difficult.  Juvenile Cox’s Gudgeon were recently photographed (by local resident and native fish expert Andrew Lo) ascending Mermaid Pool waterfall using their fins to climb the sheer rock wall.

Juvenile "Cox's Gudgeon" climbing a sheer rockface

A BRIEF HISTORY OF TIME


 Of course indigenous people occupied the Northern Beaches area for thousands of years and we are hauntingly reminded of their ancient presence through rock carvings and engravings in our locality. As more and more discoveries are made, the significance of the area to Aboriginal people is taking on a greater dimension and the environs of the Mermaid Pool are now being nominated as an Aboriginal site by the MLALC and others.

   In 1788 Governor Arthur Phillip traversed this creek-line when it was surrounded by dense forest and swamps. In the Depression years of the 1930’s there was a camp at Allambie for people who had lost their homes. Girls used to slip away to the pool to swim naked-hence the name-Mermaid Pool. In those days the water was crystal clear, the bird-life rich and varied and the bushland vibrant and colourful.  There is still a rare pocket of coastal rainforest beneath the rocky overhangs of Mermaid Pool which echoes a long distant era. A mere seventy years ago much of Manly Vale was unspoilt bushland, platypus still occupied some waterways and even quolls and koalas were ‘in residence’.

The home of the Douglas Family in the 1930's in what is now "Jenna Close"

WHAT ON EARTH NEXT  ?


 Land owners and occupiers between Manly Dam wall and Mermaid Pool have recently collaborated with The “Return of the Mermaids” project representatives on ways to restore the creekline in their specific areas. It’s an important step forward which means that Sydney Water, the Department of Services, Technology and Administration, Manly Hydraulics Laboratory, The University of New South Wales Water Research Laboratory and the community are working productively together. Further downstream Warringah Golf Club and Conservation Volunteers Australia are also doing very positive remedial work. There are also some grave threats to the bushland in the surrounding area (see blog article "This War Memorial Park is Under Siege)


A Water Dragon..one of the popular local residents.

THE KING ST WAR MEMORIAL AVENUE


 On Planet Ark National Tree Day 2005, volunteers planted a grove of endemic native shrubs along King St, Manly Vale to the approaches of Manly Warringah War Memorial Park. This was to commemorate 60 years since the end of World War 2 and to also highlight the importance of planting local native species.  A NSW Government  Community Partnership Program grant was subsequently applied for which helped us to finish the job using contractors from  Australian Bushland Restoration. The “avenue of honour” has since been dedicated to the sacrifice and service of merchant seamen in world wars 1 and 2. It is now a significant memorial and important educational feature of the area. NSW War Memorials Register            
 
    Ex Merchant Seamen, Don, Ray and Don at the "Avenue of Honour"  central monument. 

OPERATION W.O.W. WATCHING OUR WILDLIFE


 We are currently positioning  nesting boxes for native wildlife in the area (from pygmy possums and micro bats to king parrots) which will provide homes for wildlife (acting as surrogate tree hollows). We are hoping to retrofit tiny cameras inside the boxes to help give the community knowledge of (and empathy with) their local species by being able to observe them. Vision from inside the boxes would be transmitted live via the internet.  Our beautiful remnant of bushland has no power or communications, so we will provide our own – wirelessly, to bring images from the site. Each nesting box in addition to it’s Raspberry Pi computer will be connected to a Mesh wireless network which connects to the internet. Additionally each box would be powered by a dry-cell battery that is charged via photo voltaic solar collectors. As many of the residents are nocturnal, we will illuminated their nesting boxes with infra Red which our cameras pick will up as monochrome images.



King Parrot nesting box


ORARA RESERVE RESTORATION


 Our parent organisation, the Save Manly Dam Catchment Committee has also helped fund important restoration work at Orara Reserve at Allambie, in conjunction with the Beach School.  This work involved contracting a team from Bushlink ( a bush regeneration organisation which employs people with a disability).  Collaborating with students,  they are gradually removing the invasive weeds from this beautiful area of remnant bushland. We hope to contribute more funding to this important project in the future.








Bushlink website 

The "Return of The Mermaids" restoration project won the Inaugural KNSWB Blue Star Sustainability Award in 2015 in the Habitat and Wildlife Guardianship Category.



CAN YOU SPONSOR THE FUTURE?


 Are you a local business that can appreciate the need to restore our waterways and conserve our bushland ? Every industry from tourism, surf products and fishing to manufacturing and administration benefits from looking after the environment.  The “Return of the Mermaids” project needs your support now to help fund future important conservation work along Manly Creek and to ensure momentum continues.  If you’re interested in partnering the community please email cowfish5@bigpond.com

Mermaids Sapphire and Skye (courtesy Manly Sea-life Sanctuary)

 Special thanks to all the wonderful volunteers who have worked so hard to ‘Return the Mermaids”* (Many of the first volunteers had spent the previous decade campaigning to save the headwaters of Manly Dam  from the infamous ‘Ardel’ housing development which ultimately destroyed the creekline upstream. This restoration project initiated by The Save Manly Dam Catchment Committee was seen as a way to compensate for some of the environmental damage).




Join the Facebook Group: Mermaid Pool Restoration project

Check out these video links:-

Segment with Costa on Gardening Australia 2014

Mermaid Pool Sydney Metro CMA Award winners 2012

World Water Day 2012. 10th Anniversary of "Return of the Mermaids"

 Jess Amos Film

And here's article on the Mermaid Pool by Peter Fitzsimons that was featured in the Sydney Magazine 



Thursday, 5 February 2015

Batting For Australia

 What an amazing service bats do for this nation and what little thanks they get for it! Most of us are familiar with larger bats, the flying foxes, as we can witness their spectacular flight formations over the Sydney sky at dusk.  These animals provide vital ecological services. They are important pollinators (the sole pollinators of certain tree species) and they also disperse seeds which helps keep our forests viable. Their natural diet is native fruit and pollen.
 
 What you may not know is that we also have nearly twenty species of microbat in our area.  Most of these are very small...some are as tiny as your thumbnail and weigh less than a 10 cent coin!  Most microbats eat only insects and some thrive on mosquitoes - scoffing down thousands every night.  In fact, if bats ever became extinct, insect numbers would soon reach plague proportions (they already save us billions of dollars a year in agricultural pest control). So why do humans get so illogically squeamish at the very thought of these cute and beneficial creatures?  Well many people wrongly associate bats with vampires, witchcraft and black magic but the only spells I’ve seen them cast in real life are those of wonder and fascination.  Bats are warm blooded, placental mammals.  Like us, they usually have one baby at a time, with occasional twins. They carry their offspring around with them for about three weeks after they are born, and continue to breast-feed them for up to 6 months. Although flying foxes have good sight and all bats can see with their eyes, the really amazing thing about microbats  is that they fly and hunt in darkness using echolocation.  They basically emit ultra sonic calls and by repeatedly scanning the echoing sound patterns, can mentally construct an accurate image of the environment in which they are moving as well as their potential prey. No wonder they have such big ears!
  
 Until recently there was a colony of around 22,000 Grey-headed flying foxes roosting in the Royal Botanical Gardens. It became quite a tourist attraction as it was possible to observe the chattering, upside-down hanging, melee during daylight hours.  Unfortunately, the Botanical Gardens Trust decided that the bats were causing too much collateral damage to their exotic trees and with Federal Government approval, moved them on, using loud recorded noises. Grey-headed flying foxes are a threatened species, protected under both state and national environment law. Thankfully, it seems, many of the relocating bats have been welcomed by the Centennial Parklands Foundation and small colonies have even made themselves at home on the Peninsula. It is recommended that people do not disturb or handle bats though, as, like all animals, including cats, they can carry disease.

Endangered Grey-headed flying foxes roost near a busy road at Balgowlah

 Microbats roost inside tree hollows and sometimes under rock overhangs, bridges and culverts during the day.  Their main threat is loss of habitat and competition for roosts from Indian Miners and feral bees. They are also at risk from predation by cats and rats and are sensitive to pollution, loud noise and bright lights.


Footnote: Amazingly, our part of the world can even boast a bat that fishes....the Large-footed Myotis.  It forages over pools of water in rivers, lakes and small streams, using its over-sized feet to scoop along water surfaces for small fish and aquatic insects. It has recently been found at Narrabeen Lagoon.

A Lesser long-eared bat

People in "the know" believe that bats are the coolest animals on the planet. To find out more and to help with conservation efforts check this link.. Sydney's bats

Saturday, 3 January 2015

Beautiful Sydney has such an ugly secret.

  In scenic Sydney we’re lucky to have quite a few patches of “urban bushland”  dotted  around the traps that have been mercifully spared from the bulldozers.

Unblemished  Sydney bushland
 The sad truth though, is that most of these remnants are being smothered by introduced invasive weeds, used as convenient dumpsites and are fast losing their (once) amazing biodiversity.


This ancient Banksia has been smothered to death by introduced weeds
 Just look along the fence lines of properties backing onto bushland and you’ll discover, almost universally, the same story, a total disconnection from and lack of respect for the natural vegetation. Sydney homeowners invariably seem to grow plant species that “escape” from their gardens into the bush (such as Agapanthus) and “out compete” the fragile natives. They also turn a blind eye to (and neglect to tackle) destructive weeds such as Morning Glory, Lantana, Ginger Lily and Privet that thrive on the fertilizers washed out of their flower beds.
Ginger Lily, Fishbone Fern and Morning Glory will totally replace fragile native plants.
 To compound this problem they tend to think that it’s their god given right to hurl garden clippings, unwanted bricks and scrap metal into the bush, providing species of unwanted weeds from around the globe, a perfect springboard to assault our fragile native flora.


Almost everyone grows this same boring weed species called Agapanthus

 The upshot is that Sydney bushland, far from being the richly diverse “larder” that sustained indigenous peoples for millennia, or the wondrous spectacle that would have greeted Captain Cook and his crew, is fast disappearing before our very eyes.


A typical Sydney fenceline..the yellow (Senna) and blue (Morning Glory) are strangling the bushland.
  Worryingly, virtually no one living next to bushland appears to have any knowledge of what’s happening,  very few are inclined to retain or grow endemic native plants on their land, are bothered to remove weed species or express concern at the disturbing rate of land degradation (apart from isolated “Bushcare” groups).

 Indeed, almost the only interaction between residents and bushland is the increasingly popular practice of poisoning surviving Eucalyptus trees to enhance views. Some people also have a habit of moving into bushland suburbs for the natural beauty values only to then complain about the fire risks and lobby for greater “hazard reduction” zones.

 There is an incredible amount of ignorance in the community about native flora and fauna, so most residents would fail to distinguish between native plants and the introduced species that are fast replacing them. If the trend continues, our natural areas will just become one big weedy desert. As a consequence the birds, animals and insects that relay on native plants for their food source, will vanish too.


When native plants disappear, so does most biodiversity
 So what’s the solution?  Residents whose houses back onto bushland, should be encouraged to learn more about their “duty of care”, prompted to remove invasive plants species from their gardens and fined for doing the “wrong thing”. Councils and government should be much more proactive in regards to community education (as should our schools). According to the Australian Conservation Foundation,  people today recognise less than 10 plant species but more than a thousand corporate logos.

Australia these days is populated by people from around the world. Not surprisingly, most have little understanding or awareness of this nation’s natural heritage and many have an unnatural fear of this continent’s nature. I believe new citizens should have to learn not just about the nation’s history but about its natural history.

 It doesn’t help that TV “gardening”  shows totally ignore the plants that grow naturally in this country and concentrate on promoting only exotic hybrids and cultivars. Who is going to protest the loss of something that the community doesn’t even realise is going? The reality is that it would take a massive capital expenditure to substantially and professionally restore areas of degraded bushland plus a political will that just doesn’t exist ( most current rehabilitation programs are small scale and cosmetic).


Gardening "experts" will never tell you about native Beronias!

 The trouble is, once you possess the knowledge that urban bushland is in deep crisis, a walk in your local reserve will never be quite the joyful experience that it once was.


 In a society that puts such a high premium on beauty and good looks...where did it all go so horribly wrong?

Fancy a walk amongst the weeds??

 Check out this other blog post if you are interested in  "Re-wilding" your backyard


A few community members have seen the light and are caring for
remnant bushland.





Weed better talk about this issue...

 Believe me, for most of my life I thought weed was either something you smoked or kicked sand in the face of. If you’d told me years ago that I would develop a malevolent dislike for the plural of weed, I would have thought you were off your trolley, barmy, nuts, crazy, absolutely stark raving, stonking mad. But then I suppose I went “troppo”, ended up living in the suburbs of Sydney, and discovered the awful harm these pernicious things actually did.  To be fair, I was raised in the English Midlands where weeds were harmlessly insignificant and there was so little genuine nature left, that they were almost as good as it got.  I’ve since learned that around 80% of Britain’s flora is not endemic. 
 
 Fast forward to life in the burgeoning metropolis of Sydney, which is still blessed to have pockets of native vegetation interspersed with suburbia. Here you’ll find incredible plant biodiversity and species that have survived from the time of the Gondwana super-continent, learning to adapt and evolve to dry, hot, arid conditions and nutrient poor soils and fire. You’ll also find lots and lots of weeds. These are not weedy weeds though...they’re aggressive super-sized marauders on a testosterone fueled rampage.  And yes, like just about everything else that’s bad in this wonderful continent...the ignorant, thoughtless, careless colonialists and their progeny are to blame.


 It all started with the first British settlers wanting to plant reminders of “home” at every given opportunity and it continues to this day with the horticultural industry still bringing in new profit-making varieties from overseas. Every single one is a potential weed.

Weed management  actually costs the Australian economy around $4 billion annually,  weeds represent, the second greatest threat to biodiversity after land clearing and almost half of Australia's 220 declared noxious weeds were introduced deliberately, one third of these as garden ornamentals.  

  People still prefer to plant “exotics” rather than their own native species and chances are these will invade the bushland and outgrow, overwhelm and displace the flora that was there originally, especially when boosted by the steroid effect of high nutrients provided by garden fertilizers and urban run-off.  If you love nature, it is pretty hard to witness the demise of high diversity bushland as it gets swamped, smothered and eventually killed off by a suite of foreign invaders. These are some of the most prominent rogue species on Sydney’s Northern Beaches. If they exist in your garden, please get rid!

Asparagus Fern.  This menace is from South Africa and like many other weeds..its seeds are spread by birds that eat the red berries.  You can offer see this as a feature plant in suburban gardens, especially in hanging baskets.

Lantana. This native of Central and South America was brought to Australia in around 1840 as a garden ornamental. It has now invaded around 4 million hectares and graziers spend over 17 million dollars per annum trying to control it.  (NB in heavily denuded areas it is often the last refuge for small birds so caution is advised before hurried removal). Lantana has been cultivated for well over 300 years and has hundreds of hybrids. It has been nominated as among the top hundred world’s worst invaders. It is thought that the original un-hybridised version no longer exists in nature.
Cotoneaster. This is another weed from China which is highly invasive.  It is a common garden plant which escapes into the bush and also acts as a food source for feral bird species.
Senna/Cassia  This is another nasty piece of work from South America which was imported here as a garden plant..It is very invasive and thrives in all conditions.
 
Morning Glory This is another ostensibly “pretty” garden plant but once it gets into the bush it can be a nightmare to remove. A native of China, it was used for medicinal purposes due to the laxative properties of its seeds.
Ochna is a native of South Africa with bright yellow flowers. It is also known as the Mickey Mouse Bush due to the plant’s red sepals and black seed which has a passing resemblance to the Disney character. Another rampant invader of our bushland.

Privet. As a child in Birmingham UK, we had massive privet hedges in our garden which were sculpted and lovingly preened. Little did I know that in later years I would be frantically cutting these plants down. In Australia, their black fruits are greedily consumed by birds which collaborate in spreading this pest deep into fragile bushland where it grows rampantly. There are small-leaf and broad-leaf varieties native to Eastern Asia and European privet which is native to Southern Europe and Northern Africa.
Pittosporum Undulatum (Sweet Pittosporum). This is a weird one as it is actually a native plant that has gone feral and is now out-competing other species and shading them out. It has done especially well in soils that have been modified by humans and takes advantage of high nutrient levels.

For help identifying weeds of the Sydney region click here  weed I.D.

Friday, 10 October 2014

Welcome Home "Diggers"

 Great news for conservationists (and conversationalists)! Two “lost” species are returning to our suburbs. The Long-nosed Bandicoot, a once common resident (but not seen in Manly Vale for 45 years) is amazingly, making a comeback. And the Brush-turkey..a rare visitor to Sydney in the last 20 years or so, is now strutting up and down my street (and many others) with “gay abandon”.

 Bandicoots, it seems, have benefited from targeted fox baiting and their numbers are bouncing back, as the population of this introduced predator is curtailed.  Brush (or Scrub) Turkeys, which were virtually wiped out by hunting and loss of habitat (apparently their tough and stringy meat provided many a family feed during the Great Depression) are also reclaiming their territory.

 Of course these great examples of wildlife resilience has stimulated a cacophony of criticism. Some churlish people baulk at the small v shaped holes that bandicoots make in lawns when looking for grubs...whilst the fact that Brush-turkeys build large nesting mounds doesn’t win them many fans (especially with the “English style” manicured garden brigade). The irony is , these “protected species”, vilified by some for their habitual digging, are benefiting us all by doing just that !

 A recent Murdoch University study has found that native digging animals (also including Bilbies,Potaroos etc) play a key role in promoting eco-system health. Their activities increase soil nutrition, seed dispersal and water infiltration.  Some foraging animals are also credited with reducing bush-fire risks by taking leaf litter underground. The diggings of feral species such as rabbits, in contrast, promote the spread of weeds and have a negative effect on the soil.

 Imagine how our landscape might have looked if we hadn’t systematically eradicated most of our native wildlife! (Australia has the world’s worst record for mammal extinction in the last 200 years). So please, embrace these lovely “diggers” give them some space, keep your pets away and make the wildlife feel at home!

Long -nosed Bandicoot (Perameles nasuta)

 A  nocturnal marsupial with large pointed ears and a long muzzle.  It is greyish brown in colour with a creamy white forefeet and under-body.
Habitat: Rainforests, woodlands, heathland, grasslands.
Distribution: from Vic to Qld borders.
Size: 310-425mm
Lifespan: around 2.5 years
Diet: Omniverous. Primarily beetles, ants, larvae, fungi, roots, shoots.
Breeds: July to March
Gestation: only 12.5 days (shortest of any mammal)
Litter: 1 to 5.  In a good year, females may produce up to 4 litters.
Predators: dogs, cats, foxes (and cars)
 An “isolated” population of around 200 can be found at Manly’s North Head and is listed as “endangered”.

Sadly, many Bandicoots fall prey to domestic cats (photo James Taylor)

Australia Brush-turkey (Alectura lathami)

One of three Australian “Mound Builders”- the other two being the mallee fowl and the orange-footed scrubfowl. It has deep black plumage, bare red head and neck, a broad flat fan tail. Males have a redder head and neck and a distinguishing yellow “wattle”. A chick looks similar to a quail and has brown feathers.
Habitat:  Rainforest and eucalypt forest
Distribution:  Australia’s east coast from NSW to Queensland
Size: 60-70cm body length.
Lifespan: 10 years
Diet: Leaf litter, invertebrates and fruits
Breeding:  Occurs from August to January. The male brush-turkey builds a large mound of organic matter up to 6 metres wide and 1.5 metres high. The females are attracted to a well built and maintained mound and one or more birds will lay eggs inside it. The decomposition of the vegetation inside the mound produces heat The male checks the temperature by inserting his bill and then adds or removes material to maintain a 32to 33 C degree temperature. After around 50 days the young brush-turkeys hatch and have to fend for themselves.
Female brush-turkeys lay between 20 and 30 eggs a year. (one mound may contain up to 150 eggs over a season)
Predators: Goannas, snakes, birds of prey, foxes, domestic cats and dogs. To protect themselves, brush-turkeys form roosting groups in trees.





video
And here's a view of a Bandicoot visiting my own Manly Vale backyard (after many years of endeavouring to create the right habitat for them!)